Understanding infertility

Infertility and causes of infertility

Infertility is fairly common. After one year of having unprotected sex, about 15 percent of couples are unable to get pregnant. About a third of the time, infertility can be traced to the woman. In another third of cases, it is because of the man.

We can help you determine your problem and suggest a treatment method that has the highest chance of success.

Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive a child in these cases:

  • after 1 year of unprotected intercourse if you are under 35 years of age,
  • after 6 months of unprotected intercourse if you are 35 – 39 years of age,
  • after 3 months of unprotected intercourse if you are 40 years of age or over,
  • if you have reason to believe that you have a hidden problem or irregular menstruation


One rising factors is that women are delaying having children until later in life.

Women are most fertile between 20 and 25 years of age. Fertility decreases in women over 35 years of age, as her eggs are the same age as she is.

The eggs of older women have more frequent genetic chromosomal abnormalities and if these are fertilised, the embryo can be damaged (the percentage of children with Down’s Syndrome is 1 in every 2000 women aged 20, 1 in every 900 women aged 30, 1 in every 350 women aged 35, 1 in every 110 women aged 40, and 1 in every 25 women aged 46, for example).

  • ovarian factor
  • fallopian tube factor
  • immunological factor
  • genetic causes
  • excessively thick cervical mucus
  • congenital developmental womb defects
  • endometriosis
  • idioathic factor


Age is of less importance in men. However, older men have less sperm, which is less motile and may have chromosomal defects. An egg fertilized by such a sperm may result in genetic disease.

  • andrology factor
  • coital issues
  • immunological factor
  • genetic causes
  • other causes and factors

Infertility testing

The anamnesis is determined on the basis of an interview with a physician who asks the infertile couple about their current health and other circumstances which could affect fertility (menstrual cycle, previous pregnancy, inflammation, operations, the frequency of intercourse, medication, food supplements).

Detailed testing of both partners is essential in determining the precise cause of infertility and the method for treating this infertility.

We perform most testing at our clinic. If the infertile couple undergoes an examination in their country of origin, the results must not be more than 3 months old. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) must be performed in the Czech Republic by our contractual laboratory.

Basic testing for women and men

  • Women: age, weight, Anti-Müller hormone (AMH), blood group, Rh factor, thyroid gland hormones,hormonal profile, sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cultivation including ureaplasma, mycoplasma and chlamydia
  • Men: sperm analysis, sexually transmitted diseases, immunological testing including establishment of semen anti-bodies, genetic examination, andrology testing

After the results of the test, the probability of conception are communicated to patients and our physicians suggest actions in according to the results.

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