The embryo presents a major challenge to the female immune system. Since the maternal and paternal parts are combined in the embryo, the immune system should recognize this “intruder” as foreign and reject it.
During implantation, the embryo sends mediators into the woman’s body that initiate an immune response. The female body then begins to produce Fc-blocking antibodies. These prevent the embryo from being recognized by the immune system as a foreign body and rejected.
However, if this reaction is weak or absent, the immune system produces so-called killer cells (NK – killers), which cause rejection, leading to implantation failure or abortion. Immunotherapy suppresses unwanted rejection and can help prevent this body reaction.
Immunological examination is recommended in the following cases:
- with 3 or more repeated spontaneous abortions or silent pregnancies
- with 3-4 or more unsuccessful embryo transfers within IVF
- if pregnancy does not occur despite the good fertility of both partners
- if a combination of the above happened
If it turns out that the cause of not getting pregnant may be an unwanted immune reaction, it is advisable to start immunotherapy. Standard drugs in these cases are corticoids in combination with miniheparins.
And a very specific group of patients with a deficiency of certain groups of KIR genes can today be helped by a drug such as Granocyte (Granozyte), which stimulates the formation of female immune cells and, according to the available results in studies, has a success rate of about 70% in terms of the number of pregnancies in this group of patients, which we can confirm from our own experience.